Der Mythos (chinesisch 神话, Pinyin Shénhuà, kantonesisch San4 Waa2) ist ein chinesischer Film mit Jackie Chan, der erschienen ist. Der Film wurde. Die Mythen (Aussprache: [ˈmiːtən]) sind ein Bergmassiv in den Schwyzer Alpen, bestehend aus den zwei markanten Felspyramiden des Grossen Mythen. German Wikipedia has an article on: Mythos m (genitive Mythos, plural Mythen) The Holocaust is the most important mythos of German post-war society.
In one of his works, Merope attempts to kill her son's murderer with an axe, unaware that the man in question is actually her son.
According to an ancient description of audience reactions to this work, the audience members were genuinely unsure of whether she would commit filicide or she will be stopped in time.
They rose to their feet in terror and caused an uproar. David Wiles points that the traditional mythos of Ancient Greece, was primarily a part of its oral tradition.
The Greeks of this era were a literate culture, but produced no sacred texts. There were no definitive or authoritative versions of myths recorded in texts and preserved forever in an unchanging form.
These variants were adapted into songs, dances, poetry, and visual art. Performers of myths could freely reshape their source material for a new work, adapting it to the needs of a new audience or in response to a new situation.
Children in Ancient Greece were familiar with traditional myths from an early age. According to the philosopher Plato c. David Wiles describes them as a repository of mythological lore.
Bruce Lincoln has called attention to the apparent meaning of the terms mythos and logos in the works of Hesiod.
In Theogony , Hesiod attributes to the Muses the ability to both proclaim truths and narrate plausible falsehoods falsehoods which seem like real things.
There are two variants in the manuscript tradition for the verb used to proclaim truths. One variant uses gerusasthai , the other mythesasthai.
The latter is a form of the verb mytheomai to speak, to tell , which is etymologically associated with mythos. He also announces to his readers his intention to tell true things to his brother.
The verb he uses for telling the truth is mythesaimen , another form of mytheomai. Lincoln draws the conclusion that Hesiod associated the "speech of mythos " as Lincoln calls it with telling the truth.
While he associated the "speech of logos " with telling lies , and hiding one's true thoughts dissimulation. Three times the term is associated with the term " seductive " and three times with the term "falsehoods".
Eris' children are ominous figures, which personify various physical and verbal forms of conflict. Comparative mythology is the systematic comparison of myths from different cultures.
It seeks to discover underlying themes that are common to the myths of multiple cultures. In some cases, comparative mythologists use the similarities between separate mythologies to argue that those mythologies have a common source.
This source may inspire myths or provide a common "protomythology" that diverged into the mythologies of each culture. A number of commentators have argued that myths function to form and shape society and social behaviour.
Eliade argued that one of the foremost functions of myth is to establish models for behavior   and that myths may provide a religious experience.
By telling or reenacting myths, members of traditional societies detach themselves from the present, returning to the mythical age, thereby coming closer to the divine.
Honko asserted that, in some cases, a society reenacts a myth in an attempt to reproduce the conditions of the mythical age.
For example, it might reenact the healing performed by a god at the beginning of time in order to heal someone in the present.
Since it is not the job of science to define human morality, a religious experience is an attempt to connect with a perceived moral past, which is in contrast with the technological present.
Pattanaik defines mythology as "a subjective truth of people that is communicated through stories, symbols and rituals". One theory claims that myths are distorted accounts of historical events.
Some theories propose that myths began as allegories for natural phenomena: Apollo represents the sun, Poseidon represents water, and so on. Athena represents wise judgment, Aphrodite desire, and so on.
He believed myths began as allegorical descriptions of nature and gradually came to be interpreted literally. For example, a poetic description of the sea as "raging" was eventually taken literally and the sea was then thought of as a raging god.
Some thinkers claimed that myths result from the personification of objects and forces. According to these thinkers, the ancients worshiped natural phenomena, such as fire and air, gradually deifying them.
According to the myth-ritual theory, myth is tied to ritual. Forgetting the original reason for a ritual, they account for it by inventing a myth and claiming the ritual commemorates the events described in that myth.
The critical interpretation of myth began with the Presocratics. He interpreted myths as accounts of actual historical events - distorted over many retellings.
Sallustius  divided myths into five categories — theological, physical or concerning natural laws , animistic or concerning soul , material, and mixed.
Mixed concerns myths that show the interaction between two or more of the previous categories and are particularly used in initiations.
Plato famously condemned poetic myth when discussing education in the Republic. His critique was primarily on the grounds that the uneducated might take the stories of gods and heroes literally.
Nevertheless, he constantly referred to myths throughout his writings. As Platonism developed in the phases commonly called Middle Platonism and neoplatonism , writers such as Plutarch , Porphyry , Proclus , Olympiodorus, and Damascius wrote explicitly about the symbolic interpretation of traditional and Orphic myths.
Mythological themes were consciously employed in literature, beginning with Homer. The resulting work may expressly refer to a mythological background without itself becoming part of a body of myths Cupid and Psyche.
Medieval romance in particular plays with this process of turning myth into literature. Euhemerism , as stated earlier, refers to the rationalization of myths, putting themes formerly imbued with mythological qualities into pragmatic contexts.
An example of this would be following a cultural or religious paradigm shift notably the re-interpretation of pagan mythology following Christianization.
Interest in polytheistic mythology revived during the Renaissance , with early works of mythography appearing in the sixteenth century, among them the Theologia Mythologica The first modern, Western scholarly theories of myth appeared during the second half of the nineteenth century  — at the same time as the word myth was adopted as a scholarly term in European languages.
This movement drew European scholars' attention not only to Classical myths, but also material now associated with Norse mythology , Finnish mythology , and so forth.
Western theories were also partly driven by Europeans' efforts to comprehend and control the cultures, stories and religions they were encountering through colonialism.
These encounters included both extremely old texts such as the Sanskrit Rigveda and the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh , and current oral narratives such as mythologies of the indigenous peoples of the Americas or stories told in traditional African religions.
The intellectual context for nineteenth-century scholars was profoundly shaped by emerging ideas about evolution. These ideas included the recognition that many Eurasian languages—and therefore, conceivably, stories—were all descended from a lost common ancestor the Indo-European language which could rationally be reconstructed through the comparison of its descendant languages.
They also included the idea that cultures might evolve in ways comparable to species. One of the dominant mythological theories of the later nineteenth century was "nature mythology", whose foremost exponents included Max Müller and Edward Burnett Tylor.
This theory posited that "primitive man" was primarily concerned with the natural world. It tended to interpret myths that seemed distasteful European Victorians—for example tales about sex, incest, or cannibalism—as being metaphors for natural phenomena like agricultural fertility.
According to Tylor, human thought evolved through stages, starting with mythological ideas and gradually progressing to scientific ideas.
He speculated that myths arose due to the lack of abstract nouns and neuter gender in ancient languages. Anthropomorphic figures of speech, necessary in such languages, were eventually taken literally, leading to the idea that natural phenomena were in actuality conscious beings or gods.
James George Frazer saw myths as a misinterpretation of magical rituals, which were themselves based on a mistaken idea of natural law: When they realize applications of these laws do not work, they give up their belief in natural law in favor of a belief in personal gods controlling nature, thus giving rise to religious myths.
Meanwhile, humans continue practicing formerly magical rituals through force of habit, reinterpreting them as reenactments of mythical events.
Finally humans come to realize nature follows natural laws, and they discover their true nature through science.
Here again, science makes myth obsolete as humans progress "from magic through religion to science. Segal asserted that by pitting mythical thought against modern scientific thought, such theories imply modern humans must abandon myth.
The earlier twentieth century saw major work developing psychoanalytical approaches to interpreting myth, led by Sigmund Freud , who, drawing inspiration from Classical myth, began developing the concept of the Oedipus complex in his The Interpretation of Dreams.
Jung likwise tried to understand the psychology behind world myths. Jung asserted that all humans share certain innate unconscious psychological forces, which he called archetypes.
He believed similarities between the myths of different cultures reveals the existence of these universal archetypes. He is associated with the idea that myths such as origin stories might provide a "mythic charter"—a legitimisation—for cultural norms and social institutions.
In other words, myth is a form of understanding and telling stories that is connected to power, political structures, and political and economic interests.
These approaches contrast with approaches such as those of Campbell and Eliade that hold that myth has some type of essential connection to ultimate sacred meanings that transcend cultural specifics.
In particular, myth was studied in relation to history from diverse social sciences. Most of these studies share the assumption that history and myth are not distinct in the sense that history is factual, real, accurate, and truth, while myth is the opposite.
In the s, Barthes published a series of essays examining modern myths and the process of their creation in his book Mythologies , which stood as an early work in the emerging post-structuralist approach to mythology, which recognised myths' existence in the modern world and in popular culture.
The twentieth century saw rapid secularisation in Western culture. This made Western scholars more willing to analyse narratives in the Abrahamic religions as myths; theologians such as Rudolf Bultmann argued that a modern Christianity needed to demythologize ;  and other religious scholars embraced the idea that the mythical status of Abrahamic narratives was a legitimate feature of their importance.
In a religious context, however, myths are storied vehicles of supreme truth, the most basic and important truths of all.
By them people regulate and interpret their lives and find worth and purpose in their existence. Myths put one in touch with sacred realities, the fundamental sources of being, power, and truth.
They are seen not only as being the opposite of error but also as being clearly distinguishable from stories told for entertainment and from the workaday, domestic, practical language of a people.
They provide answers to the mysteries of being and becoming, mysteries which, as mysteries, are hidden, yet mysteries which are revealed through story and ritual.
Myths deal not only with truth but with ultimate truth. Both in nineteenth-century research that tended to see existing records of stories and folklore as imperfect fragments of partially lost myths, and in twentieth-century structuralist work that sought to identify underlying patterns and structures in often diverse versions of a given myth, there had been a tendency to synthesise sources to attempt to reconstruct what scholars supposed to be more perfect or underlying forms of myths.
From the late twentieth century, however, researchers influenced by postmodernism tended instead to argue that each account of a given myth has its own cultural significance and meaning, and argued that rather than representing degradation from a once more perfect form, myths are inherently plastic and variable.
One prominent example of this movement was A. Ramanujan 's essay Three Hundred Ramayanas. Correspondingly, scholars challenged the precedence that had once been given to texts as a medium for mythology, arguing that other media, such as the visual arts or even landscape and place-naming, could be as or more important.
In modern society, myth is often regarded as a collection of stories. Scholars in the field of cultural studies research how myth has worked itself into modern discourses.
Mythological discourse can reach greater audiences than ever before via digital media. Various mythic elements appear in television , cinema and video games.
Although myth was traditionally transmitted through the oral tradition on a small scale, the film industry has enabled filmmakers to transmit myths to large audiences via film.
The basis of modern visual storytelling is rooted in the mythological tradition. Many contemporary films rely on ancient myths to construct narratives.
Disney Corporation is well-known among cultural study scholars for "reinventing" traditional childhood myths. Mythological archetypes, such as the cautionary tale regarding the abuse of technology, battles between gods and creation stories, are often the subject of major film productions.
These films are often created under the guise of cyberpunk action films , fantasy , dramas and apocalyptic tales. Authors use mythology as a basis for their books, such as Rick Riordan , whose Percy Jackson and the Olympians series is situated in a modern-day world where the Greek deities are manifest.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Myth disambiguation and Mythos disambiguation. The Lydian and later the Macedonian kings, as rulers of the same rank, also became Heracleidae.
Other members of this earliest generation of heroes such as Perseus, Deucalion , Theseus and Bellerophon , have many traits in common with Heracles.
Like him, their exploits are solitary, fantastic and border on fairy tale , as they slay monsters such as the Chimera and Medusa.
Bellerophon's adventures are commonplace types, similar to the adventures of Heracles and Theseus. Sending a hero to his presumed death is also a recurrent theme of this early heroic tradition, used in the cases of Perseus and Bellerophon.
The only surviving Hellenistic epic, the Argonautica of Apollonius of Rhodes epic poet, scholar, and director of the Library of Alexandria tells the myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to retrieve the Golden Fleece from the mythical land of Colchis.
In the Argonautica , Jason is impelled on his quest by king Pelias , who receives a prophecy that a man with one sandal would be his nemesis.
Jason loses a sandal in a river, arrives at the court of Pelias, and the epic is set in motion. Nearly every member of the next generation of heroes, as well as Heracles, went with Jason in the ship Argo to fetch the Golden Fleece.
This generation also included Theseus , who went to Crete to slay the Minotaur ; Atalanta , the female heroine, and Meleager , who once had an epic cycle of his own to rival the Iliad and Odyssey.
Pindar , Apollonius and the Bibliotheca endeavor to give full lists of the Argonauts. The story of Medea, in particular, caught the imagination of the tragic poets.
In between the Argo and the Trojan War, there was a generation known chiefly for its horrific crimes. This includes the doings of Atreus and Thyestes at Argos.
Behind the myth of the house of Atreus one of the two principal heroic dynasties with the house of Labdacus lies the problem of the devolution of power and of the mode of accession to sovereignty.
The twins Atreus and Thyestes with their descendants played the leading role in the tragedy of the devolution of power in Mycenae.
The Theban Cycle deals with events associated especially with Cadmus , the city's founder, and later with the doings of Laius and Oedipus at Thebes; a series of stories that lead to the eventual pillage of that city at the hands of the Seven Against Thebes and Epigoni.
As far as Oedipus is concerned, early epic accounts seem to have him continuing to rule at Thebes after the revelation that Iokaste was his mother, and subsequently marrying a second wife who becomes the mother of his children—markedly different from the tale known to us through tragedy e.
Sophocles' Oedipus Rex and later mythological accounts. Greek mythology culminates in the Trojan War, fought between Greece and Troy , and its aftermath.
In Homer's works, such as the Iliad , the chief stories have already taken shape and substance, and individual themes were elaborated later, especially in Greek drama.
The Trojan War also elicited great interest in the Roman culture because of the story of Aeneas , a Trojan hero whose journey from Troy led to the founding of the city that would one day become Rome, as recounted in Virgil's Aeneid Book II of Virgil's Aeneid contains the best-known account of the sack of Troy.
The Trojan War cycle , a collection of epic poems , starts with the events leading up to the war: Eris and the golden apple of Kallisti , the Judgement of Paris , the abduction of Helen , the sacrifice of Iphigenia at Aulis.
To recover Helen, the Greeks launched a great expedition under the overall command of Menelaus 's brother, Agamemnon, king of Argos or Mycenae , but the Trojans refused to return Helen.
The Iliad , which is set in the tenth year of the war, tells of the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles, who was the finest Greek warrior, and the consequent deaths in battle of Achilles' beloved comrade Patroclus and Priam 's eldest son, Hector.
After Hector's death the Trojans were joined by two exotic allies, Penthesilea , queen of the Amazons , and Memnon , king of the Ethiopians and son of the dawn-goddess Eos.
Achilles' heel was the only part of his body which was not invulnerable to damage by human weaponry.
Before they could take Troy, the Greeks had to steal from the citadel the wooden image of Pallas Athena the Palladium. Finally, with Athena's help, they built the Trojan Horse.
Despite the warnings of Priam's daughter Cassandra , the Trojans were persuaded by Sinon , a Greek who feigned desertion, to take the horse inside the walls of Troy as an offering to Athena; the priest Laocoon, who tried to have the horse destroyed, was killed by sea-serpents.
At night the Greek fleet returned, and the Greeks from the horse opened the gates of Troy. In the total sack that followed, Priam and his remaining sons were slaughtered; the Trojan women passed into slavery in various cities of Greece.
The adventurous homeward voyages of the Greek leaders including the wanderings of Odysseus and Aeneas the Aeneid , and the murder of Agamemnon were told in two epics, the Returns the lost Nostoi and Homer's Odyssey.
The Trojan War provided a variety of themes and became a main source of inspiration for Ancient Greek artists e. For instance, Trojan Medieval European writers, unacquainted with Homer at first hand, found in the Troy legend a rich source of heroic and romantic storytelling and a convenient framework into which to fit their own courtly and chivalric ideals.
They thus follow Horace 's advice and Virgil's example: Mythology was at the heart of everyday life in Ancient Greece.
They used myth to explain natural phenomena, cultural variations, traditional enmities and friendships. It was a source of pride to be able to trace the descent of one's leaders from a mythological hero or a god.
Few ever doubted that there was truth behind the account of the Trojan War in the Iliad and Odyssey. According to Victor Davis Hanson , a military historian, columnist, political essayist and former classics professor, and John Heath, a classics professor, the profound knowledge of the Homeric epos was deemed by the Greeks the basis of their acculturation.
Plato created his own allegorical myths such as the vision of Er in the Republic , attacked the traditional tales of the gods' tricks, thefts and adulteries as immoral, and objected to their central role in literature.
But it is not worth taking seriously writers who show off in the mythical style; as for those who do proceed by proving their assertions, we must cross-examine them".
Nevertheless, even Plato did not manage to wean himself and his society from the influence of myth; his own characterization for Socrates is based on the traditional Homeric and tragic patterns, used by the philosopher to praise the righteous life of his teacher: But perhaps someone might say: For according to your argument all the demigods would be bad who died at Troy, including the son of Thetis , who so despised danger, in comparison with enduring any disgrace, that when his mother and she was a goddess said to him, as he was eager to slay Hector , something like this, I believe,.
Hanson and Heath estimate that Plato's rejection of the Homeric tradition was not favorably received by the grassroots Greek civilization.
Yet the subjects of his plays were taken, without exception, from myth. Many of these plays were written in answer to a predecessor's version of the same or similar myth.
Euripides mainly impugns the myths about the gods and begins his critique with an objection similar to the one previously expressed by Xenocrates: During the Hellenistic period , mythology took on the prestige of elite knowledge that marks its possessors as belonging to a certain class.
At the same time, the skeptical turn of the Classical age became even more pronounced. Rationalizing hermeneutics of myth became even more popular under the Roman Empire , thanks to the physicalist theories of Stoic and Epicurean philosophy.
Stoics presented explanations of the gods and heroes as physical phenomena, while the Euhemerists rationalized them as historical figures.
At the same time, the Stoics and the Neoplatonists promoted the moral significations of the mythological tradition, often based on Greek etymologies.
The antiquarian Varro , who regarded religion as a human institution with great importance for the preservation of good in society, devoted rigorous study to the origins of religious cults.
In his Antiquitates Rerum Divinarum which has not survived, but Augustine 's City of God indicates its general approach Varro argues that whereas the superstitious man fears the gods, the truly religious person venerates them as parents.
Roman Academic Cotta ridicules both literal and allegorical acceptance of myth, declaring roundly that myths have no place in philosophy.
It is difficult to know how far down the social scale this rationalism extended. In Ancient Roman times, a new Roman mythology was born through syncretization of numerous Greek and other foreign gods.
This occurred because the Romans had little mythology of their own, and inheritance of the Greek mythological tradition caused the major Roman gods to adopt characteristics of their Greek equivalents.
In addition to the combination of the two mythological traditions, the association of the Romans with eastern religions led to further syncretizations.
The Asiatic divinities Mithras that is to say, the Sun and Ba'al were combined with Apollo and Helios into one Sol Invictus , with conglomerated rites and compound attributes.
The traditional literary mythology was increasingly dissociated from actual religious practice. The worship of Sol as special protector of the emperors and of the empire remained the chief imperial religion until it was replaced by Christianity.
The surviving 2nd-century collection of Orphic Hymns second century AD and the Saturnalia of Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius fifth century are influenced by the theories of rationalism and the syncretizing trends as well.
The Orphic Hymns are a set of pre-classical poetic compositions, attributed to Orpheus, himself the subject of a renowned myth. In reality, these poems were probably composed by several different poets, and contain a rich set of clues about prehistoric European mythology.
In Saturnalia reappear mythographical comments influenced by the Euhemerists, the Stoics and the Neoplatonists.
The genesis of modern understanding of Greek mythology is regarded by some scholars as a double reaction at the end of the eighteenth century against "the traditional attitude of Christian animosity", in which the Christian reinterpretation of myth as a "lie" or fable had been retained.
In Göttingen , Johann Matthias Gesner began to revive Greek studies, while his successor, Christian Gottlob Heyne , worked with Johann Joachim Winckelmann , and laid the foundations for mythological research both in Germany and elsewhere.
The development of comparative philology in the 19th century, together with ethnological discoveries in the 20th century, established the science of myth.
Since the Romantics, all study of myth has been comparative. Wilhelm Mannhardt , James Frazer , and Stith Thompson employed the comparative approach to collect and classify the themes of folklore and mythology.
Max Müller applied the new science of comparative mythology to the study of myth, in which he detected the distorted remains of Aryan nature worship.
Sigmund Freud introduced a transhistorical and biological conception of man and a view of myth as an expression of repressed ideas. Dream interpretation is the basis of Freudian myth interpretation and Freud's concept of dreamwork recognizes the importance of contextual relationships for the interpretation of any individual element in a dream.
This suggestion would find an important point of rapprochment between the structuralist and psychoanalytic approaches to myth in Freud's thought.
Segal concludes that "to interpret a myth Campbell simply identifies the archetypes in it. An interpretation of the Odyssey , for example, would show how Odysseus's life conforms to a heroic pattern.
Jung, by contrast, considers the identification of archetypes merely the first step in the interpretation of a myth". Max Müller attempted to understand an Indo-European religious form by tracing it back to its Indo-European or, in Müller's time, " Aryan " "original" manifestation.
In , he claimed that "the most important discovery which has been made during the nineteenth century with respect to the ancient history of mankind It appears that the Mycenaean religion was the mother of the Greek religion  and its pantheon already included many divinities that can be found in classical Greece.
Archaeology and mythography have revealed influence from Asia Minor and the Near East. Adonis seems to be the Greek counterpart—more clearly in cult than in myth—of a Near Eastern "dying god".
Cybele is rooted in Anatolian culture while much of Aphrodite's iconography may spring from Semitic goddesses. There are also possible parallels between the earliest divine generations Chaos and its children and Tiamat in the Enuma Elish.
In addition to Indo-European and Near Eastern origins, some scholars have speculated on the debts of Greek mythology to the indigenous pre-Greek societies: Crete , Mycenae, Pylos , Thebes and Orchomenus.
Nilsson asserts, based on the representations and general function of the gods, that a lot of Minoan gods and religious conceptions were fused in the Mycenaean religion.
The widespread adoption of Christianity did not curb the popularity of the myths. With the rediscovery of classical antiquity in the Renaissance , the poetry of Ovid became a major influence on the imagination of poets, dramatists, musicians and artists.
In Northern Europe, Greek mythology never took the same hold of the visual arts, but its effect was very obvious on literature. The English imagination was fired by Greek mythology starting with Chaucer and John Milton and continuing through Shakespeare to Robert Bridges in the 20th century.
Racine in France and Goethe in Germany revived Greek drama, reworking the ancient myths. By the end of the 18th century, Romanticism initiated a surge of enthusiasm for all things Greek, including Greek mythology.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Scenes from Greek mythology depicted in ancient art. Clockwise from top left: Satyrs Centaurs Dragons Demogorgon.
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